In the first quarter of 18th Century, Marathwada become part of Nizam’s Domain. To reward of long and distinguished career in war and politics, Aurangzeb appointed his general, Asif Jah as subhedar of Deccan in 1713 with the title of Nizam-Ul-Mulk, which become the hereditary little of the family. It remained a part of the Nizam Domain until 1948 when police action merged the Hyderabad State into the Indian Union.Marathwada is a division of Maharashtra state in India. Aurangabad Division popularly known as Marathwada. It was basically founded as a military camp and a seat subhedar in Deccan. Later on it was developed as a big trading town and a lending cultural center of the Deccan, Aurangabad is an ancient city with great historical tradition. It was a part of Nizam’s territory. After the police action in 1948, Aurangabad come under the jurisdiction the Government of Indian and on the reorganization of the state in 1956 the Marathwada became a part of bilingual state of Bombay and from 1st May 1960 Marathwada has been a part of the state of Maharashtra.
Marathwada can well be described as the home of Arts, Culture and Literature. The Caves of Ajanta and Ellora, which lie in this region, attract scholar’s artist, Students and visitors from distant part of the world Marathwada region has a rich literary and culture heritage. The Well-known poets, writers, saints and philosophers of Maharashtra Belong to this region. Dnyaneshwar, Namdeo, Ekanath, Dasopant and Ramdas are notable names. They have been responsible for the epithet cradle of Marathi Literature, applied to this region. ‘SIRAJ’ a great poet of early Urdu Literature and “WALI” known as fathers of Modern Urdu Poetry were born here and lived here in the city of Aurangabad. A year before the establishment of the Marathwada University for the population of approximately 53 lakhs in 1957, there ware around 3686 primary schools, 231 middle schools and 95 high schools in Marathwada. There wear one polytechnic and one technical school at Aurangabad until 1950; there was one intermediate college run by the Osmania University at Aurangabad. Two non-government college were started one at Aurangabad and one at Nanded in 1950. Five more colleges came into existence between 1954 and 1956, three established by the government namely, a college of Education and a college of Medicine at Aurangabad, and a college of agriculture at Parbhani and a college of Science at Mominabad. The number of students passing the H.S.C. examination had increased form 1,065 in 1957-58.
The Demand For A University For Marathwada :
For a longer period Marathwada was educationally neglected. There ware only nine intermediate college and ninety-five high schools for a total population 5,300,000 in Marathwada region before 1st November 1958. Moreover all the college were affiliated to the Osmania University, Hyderabad. The Student of Aurangabad (Marathwada) had to go to the Osmania University of Hyderabad for further studies. There were no facilities for post graduate and research students. It was difficult for a student of average means form the distinct to avail of the educational facilities in Hyderabad.Hence there was a demand form the people of Marathwada region for having an independent University in Marathwada Region increased when the number of students had to go all the way to Hyderabad for their education.After merging of the Marathi speaking areas of Hyderabad in the old state of Bombay the people of Marathwada felt free to give expression to their aspiration, and began to voice their demand for the establishment of University for the region. Educational and other associations urged the need for a separate University for Marathwada for the educational cultural and general development of the region.
In the Osmania University, the medium of instruction was Urdu as it was established in the Nizam State After political change in 1947, the independence of India the regional language were adopted as medium of Secondary Level Education. Therefore, It was necessary to teach the higher education in regional language because of this problem people form Marathwada region demanded a new University for the educational as well as Socio Economical development.
The Movement :
On 12th December 1954 meeting was organized by Marathwada Shikshan Samiti in which emphasis was given on Separate University for the purpose of cultural and Educational activities two Convention of members of Parliament and of the State Legislature in 1955-1956 strongly represented the need for a University on 29th July 1956 a delegation of members of Parliament and of the state Legislature an educationists in Marathwada Submitted memorandum to the Chief Minister of Hyderabad State making of similar demand the Government of Hyderabad appointed a committee. The committee submitted its report an on 27th October 1956 the Council of Ministers recorded its view that it was strongly of the opinion that a separate University for Marathwada area should be established. Shri Y.B. Chavan who was Chief Minister of Bombay then toured Marathwada in January 1957 wherever he went and received representations form the local bodies, students and citizens, pressing the demand for a University for Marathwada.
In response to the educational demand of Marathwada region on 27th April 1957 the government of Marathwada published its resolution appointing a Committee to report on the question of establishment of a separate University for the Marathwada area under the chairmanship of the Late Justice S.M. Paluitkar Ex chief Justice of the Hyderabad High court and later judge of Bombay High court. The committee was composed nine members recommended the establishment of original University for Marathwada area with the teaching and affiliating functions, which should pay special attention to need of the region. The committee submitted its report on the 1st December 1957. Following the recommendations of the committee, government took immediate steps to draft the necessary legislation and the Marathwada University Act received the assent of the Governor on the 5th May 1958.Shri S.R. Dongerkery, Rector of the University of Bombay who was the member of the Marathwada University committee, was appointed the first vice-chancellor by the government of Bombay on the 2nd June 1958. He assumed charge of his office on the 19th June 1958. Shri. M.P. Chitins, the principal of Milind Mahavidyalaya, Aurangabad and a member of Marathwada University committee, was appointed by Government as the first Registrar, he took charge of his office on the 18th June 1958.
The 23rd August 1958 will be inscribed in golden letters in the annals of the history of the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, as it was on this day that Shri. Late Jawaharlal Nehru, prime minister of India, inaugurated the University in the presence of the large & distinguished gathering at Aurangabad on the premises of the temporary building of the University office. On this historic occasion, the prime minister unveiled a marble plague on which has been inscribed the words :
Shri Prakash, chancellor of the University, the governor of Bombay, presided over the function, and among the distinguished guest present on occasion were Shri Hitendra Desai, Minister of education, Shri Bhagwantrao Gadhe, Minister of Forest, Shri Devsing Chauhan and Shri Shankar Rao Chauhan. Although, Shri Yashwantrao Chavan, the Chief Minister of Bombay had come for the inauguration ceremony from Bombay with the Prime Minister, owing to indisposition, he was unable to be present at the inauguration. More than 3,000 including students and teachers the leading citizens of Aurangabad and other important cities of Marathwada were present at the gathering.
The places were suggested for the seat of the University via Aurangabad, Nanded & Mominabad. The seat for the University was to be at Aurangabad.The reasons in favor of locating the University at Aurangabad are very cogent. Aurangabad has for a long time been an important cultural center of Marathwada.Deogiri (Daulatabad), the capital of Yadavas is only 8 miles from it, while the world famous Ellora caves, are 4 miles further, and the Ajanta caves whose frescoes have won the admiration of the world are just 64 miles from it.Paithan, the ancient Pratisthan of Eknath and Maharubhav fame, is 34 mils away. Aurangabad was a division center during the Hyderabad regime.Hence the committee strongly recommended that the seat of the University is located at Aurangabad.
University Buildings :
The Government of Bombay lent the two-storied building belonging to the middle school situated in Aurangpura (New Zilla Parishad) with its annexes. Until such time as the University is able to construct its own buildings on the University campus. It was proposed to utilize the existing building for the office. The meeting of the University bodies, for accommodating the University departments and library and for holding some of the post graduates classes.
In all the eight colleges in Marathwada were affiliated to the Osmania University, when the Marathwada University was established in June-1958 one more college at Jalna was affiliated in the month of July of the same year.The affiliation of nine colleges with the Osmania University terminated on October 31, 1958. The nine colleges are as follows:
(1)The Government college of Art & Science, Aurangabad (Established on 1923).
(2)The Milind Mahavidyalaya, Aurangabad (Established on 1950).
(3)The People’s college, Nanded (Established on 1950).
(4)The Government college of education, Aurangabad (Established on 1954).
(5)The Marathwada college of Agriculture, Parbhani (Established on 1956).
(6)The Manikchand Pahade low college, Aurangabad (Established on 1956).
(7)The Government Medical college, Aurangabad (Established on 1956).
(8)The Yogeshwari Science college, Mominabad (Established on 1956).
(9)The Arts & S.B.L. commerce college, Jalna (Established on 1958).